ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION TEXT
Definition of Analytical Exposition
Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter.
Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition
1.Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position
2.Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position
3.Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more
4.Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position
Language Features of Analytical Exposition
Using relational process
Using internal conjunction
Using causal conjunction
Using Simple Present Tense
in Jakarta IssueAnalytical exposition is one classified type as hortatory exposition in text genre. Both analytical exposition and hortatory exposition present arguments for supporting the issued thesis. What makes them different from one to each other is the last stage of the text, which the analytical exposition will end with a re-iteration. In the other hand, hortatory will close the essay with a recommendation. Analytical exposition will try to influence the reader by presenting some arguments to prove that the writer' idea is important. Furthermore, hortatory will try to persuade the reader how should or not do concerning the writer's idea. Now let's see the following example of analytical exposition!Jakarta as a Bad Working Place for ExpatriatesJakarta is the second-worst place for expatriates to work in outside of the United States of America, Canada and Western Europe. It is according to a recent report published by Businessweek.The Businessweek report ranked emerging markets that might be challenging to move into due to their level of pollution, disease, political violence and availability of good and services.The report ranked Jakarta second, just below lagos in Nageria and above Riyadh Saudi Arabia, saying the threat of violence from extremest, in particular, was serious drawback to living in Jakarta. Bombings targeting foreign interests in Jakarta, such as the JW Marriot hotel bombing in 2003, have been repeated elsewhere in the city.The report said despite problem common to many developing cities such as the risk of disease, poor sanitation, and excessive pollution, Indonesia can be an enticing location.In response, the Jakarta administration took the report positively, saying it could spur the administration to improve its performance
1. what will close the essay with a recommendation?
b. the response
e. all right
2. Last month I ……. to the my mother
3. A : …………………………………………………..
B : To the Museum. (I went to the museum yesterday)
a When is Dick arrive in Melbourne.
b When did Dick arrive in Melbourne.
c What is Dick arrive in Melbourne.
d Why did Dick arrive in Melbourne
e Where did Dick arrive in Melbourne
4. Yesterday, I…… mathematics
5. A : ……………………………………………………..
B : At 9:15 (my train at 9:15)
a. What time is your train arrive
b. When time did your train arrive
c. What time did your train arrive
d. I took the bus
e. What time is you go to school
HORTATORY EXPOSITION TEXT
Definition of Hortatory Exposition
Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way.
Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition
Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition
1. Focusing on the writer
2. Using abstract noun; policy, advantage, etc
3. Using action verb
4. Using thinking verb
5. Using modal adverb; certainly, surely, etc
6. Using temporal connective; firstly, secondly, etc
7. Using evaluative words; important, valuable, trustworthy, etc
8. Using passive voice
9. Using simple present tense
NEVER TRY SMOKINGA lot of people, especially teenagers, who do not smoke, always want to try smoking. They know it is bad for them and all, but it is just something they want to try. So they ask one of their smoker friends for a cigarette. Admittedly, they firstly can not light it on their own so they ask his friend to do it. Then they inhale that cigarette and smoke occasionally.Apparently that makes them the born smokers. Now they do smoke fairly regularly. They can not avoid smoking and they enjoy too. They have smoker friends. Everyday they bring a pack in their pocket. For them, a pack of cigarette is as important as a wallet for their money.Suddenly, for certain reason, they realize the fact that tobacco is the cause of a long list of nasty diseases. It is not only heart disease, stroke, and chronic lung disease but also bladder, lung, and pancreatic cancer. Even it was reported that around 400,000 Americans died each year. It was one every 80 seconds from tobacco-related illnesses.Then they decide it is stupid to harm selves. They want to quit smoking. Unfortunately, they find that quitting smoking is so difficult. “Why can't I stop smoking? I really want to stop it”. It is hard to quit because nicotine is powerfully addictive. Cigarette is one of the most efficient drug-delivery devices ever devised. As result, when people try to quit smoking, they often experience classic nicotine withdrawal symptoms such as anxiety, irritability, headache, depression, and restlessness.Well, still want to try smoke? Think the facts before trying! If you are not smoker, you should never and never try to smoke.
1. A : ……………………………………………………..
B : At 9:15 (my train at 9:15)
a What time is your train arrive
b When time did your train arrive
c What time did your train arrive
d I took the bus
e What time is you go to school
2. I…….. up at six o’clock yesterday morning
a. Get d. getted
b. Got e. goted
1. Mr. X give ……. money to buy a car
4. I do …………………homework
5. ……….. car is new
Definition and purposes of Explanation
Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural, social, scientific and cultural phenomena. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena. It is often found in science, geography and history text books.
Generic structure of Explanation
General statement; stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained.
Sequenced explanation; stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena.
Featuring generic participant; sun, rain, etc
Using chronological connection; to begin with, next, etc
Using passive voice pattern
Using simple present tense
How Roman Roads were BuiltThe system of roads for mobility has been begun early decades. It was started since the Roman Empire conquered the world. The roads in Roman era were known as the best construction.The Romans built roads are for the purpose of mobility, especially for the army. Having the best road, the army could march from one place to another. They built the roads as straight as possible, so that the army could take the shortest route.It is interesting to know how the roads were built, which some of them are still in use today. First, the Romans builders would clear the ground of rocks and trees. Then they dug a trench where the road was to go and filled it with big stones. Next, they put in big stones, pebbles, cement and sand which they packed down to make a firm base. After that, they added another layer of cement mixed with broken tiles. On top of that rough construction, then they put paving stones to make the flat surface. These stones were cut so that they fitted together tightly. As the finishing touch, kerb stones were put at each sides of the road to hold in the paving stones. It was also used to make a channel for the water to run away.
1. He bought some …….. for the party
2. At the zoo, Anton see two…….
3. There are ……… at the hospital.
4. I see some ………… on the sea
5. Last week, I see a ………. on the zoo.
SPOOFSpoof text is very similar to recount text. Both spoof and recount tell about the past event with chronological order. Its purpose is to amuse reader with funny story. The story mostly is ended with an unpredictable event.The above spoof sample has generic structure as follow:Orientation: It is the introduction of the story. By giving the orientation, reader will recognize, for the first time, who involves in the story.The above story talks about a wife and his husband who loves money too much even up to his death.Events: Several events are explored in chronological way which able to arrange the story read nicely.Promising with her money miser husband, Putting the box inside casket, locking and rolling the casket are the events which build the complete story.Twist: This is the unpredictable event/thing/way which amuse the reader. Readers even did not predict before that it would be. When reading the above story, for the first, readers likely think that the wife would put all the money instead of just a check
Loving Money Too MuchThere was a man who liked money very much. He worked all of his life and wanted to save all of his money for his own future. He was a real miser when it came to his money. He loved money more than just about anything.Even, just before he died, he said to his wife; "Now listen, when I die, I want you to take all my money and place it in the casket with me. I wanna take my money to the afterlife." So he asked his wife to promise him with all her heart that when he died, she would put all the money in the casket with him.Well, one day, he really died. Then he was stretched out in the casket. The wife was sitting there in black clothes next to her closest friend. When they finished the ceremony, just before the undertakers got ready to close the casket, the wife said "Wait just a minute!"She had a box in her hands. She came over with the box and placed it in the casket. After that the undertakers locked the casket down and rolled it away. Not long after that, her friend said, "I hope you were not crazy enough to put all that money in the casket."The wife turned to her friend and replied; "Yes, because I have promised." Then she continued; "I can't lie. I promised him that I was going to put that money in that casket with him." Feeling shocked, her friend said; "You mean that you have put every cent of his money in the casket with him?" Then the wife answered; "Surely I did. I got it all together, put all the money into my account and I just wrote him a check."
1. Mary likes the present ……………… I gave her for her birthday
2. The camera………. I bought has a zoom lens
3. A high-strung person is someone……………. is always nerveous
4. The woman …….. car was stolen called the police
5. The man …………. Picture in the newspaper is famous
a That e. who
Definition of Recount
Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative
Generic Structure of Recount
1. Orientation: Introducing the participants, place and time
2. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past
3. Reorientation: It is optional. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story
Language Feature of Recount
• Introducing personal participant; I, my group, etc
• Using chronological connection; then, first, etc
• Using linking verb; was, were, saw, heard, etc
• Using action verb; look, go, change, etc
• Using simple past tense
Journalist's DiaryRecount is very similar to narrative. Recount explores the series of events which happened to participant/s. These events are the main element in composing recount text. However it just focuses on the events themselves. It does not include the conflict inside.The events will be told in chronological order based on time and place. If we get recount text with complete generic structure, it will be constructed by structuring orientation, events and re-orientation. The absence of complication/problem/conflict in the generic structure is actually differentiating from narrative. Arranging these series of event in beautiful and attractive way is the power of writer in composing recount text. Below is piece of passage which can be read as recount text.My Rush Time as a JournalistI usually woke up at eight o'clock a.m. and went to the Press Center to check the daily schedule of briefings and press conferences. It was usually held by the United Nation officials or disaster mitigation team.It was challenging to visit different refugee camps to find soft stories, human interest stories. After that I went back to the Press Center to cover the press conferences of the day.It was heart breaking when I saw these survivors fight for food and secondhand clothing. Unfortunately as they said, the food and clothing were limited and inadequate. Emerging to glaring, fool noon, it was time to go back to Press Center to write stories and race against time. I was always fearing that the internet would come crushing down.After everything was done, only then I remembered to eat. Most times, I only ate once a day because I always had to rush and again it was difficult to find food. I had to travel quite far. I needed to spend a 30 to 45 minutes by car just to find fresh food.
6. Mary likes the present ……………… I gave her for her birthday
7. The camera………. I bought has a zoom lens
8. A high-strung person is someone……………. is always nerveous
9. The woman …….. car was stolen called the police
10. The man …………. Picture in the newspaper is famous
a That e. who
Definition and Social Function of Anecdote
Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Its purpose is to entertain the readers.
Generic Structure of Anecdote
Language Feature of Anecdote
1. Using exclamation words; it's awful!, it's wonderful!, etc
2. Using imperative; listen to this
3. Using rhetoric question; do you know what?
4. Using action verb; go, write, etc
5. Using conjunction of time; then, afterward
6. Using simple past tense
Blessing behind TragedyThere was a black family in Scotland years ago. They were Clark family with nine children. They had a dream to go to America. The family worked and saved. They were making plan to travel with their children to America. It had taken several years but finally they had saved enough money. They had gotten passport. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to America.The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. However few days before their departure, the youngest son was bitten by a dog. The doctor sewed up the boy. Because of the possibility of getting rabies, there were being quarantined for long days. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. The family dreams were dashed. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned.The father was full of disappointed and anger. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. He shed tears of disappointment. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune.Five days latter, the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. The ship, the mighty Titanic, had shank. It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. It was unbelievable but it was.The Clak family should have been on that ship, but because of the bitten son by a dog, they were left behind. When the father heard the news, he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. He thanked God for saving their lives. It was a blessing behind a tragedy.
1. Before I going to bed, I …………..
c Play football
d Sweep the floor
2. Before Budi……… to the bed, he studied English
e Did went
3. Before………. TV, Siti studied mathematics
e Did watch
4. Sam………. playstation after I did my homework
d Did play
5. I play football before I …………. a bath
a Take e. Is take
Descriptive text has structure as below:
Identification : identifying the phenomenon to be described.
Description : describing the phenomenon in parts, qualities, or/and characteristics.
The Language Feature of Descriptive Text
Using attributive and identifying process.
Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group.
Using simple present tense
My Friend's New ShoesI have a close Friend. She is beautiful, attractive and trendy. She always want to be a trend setter of the day. She always pays much attention on her appearance. Recently, she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. This shoes really matches on her.Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. When she are walking on that shoes, all her friends, including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. The style, bright color, and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. She really have perfect appearance.She is really mad on that shoes. She said that the products covered all genders. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as she has. The products provide varieties of choice. Ballet, casual, boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way. The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend.
1. At this last year, I …….. in America
c Was staying
d Was stay
2. My father …….. TV when someone knocked the door
a Is watching
b Was watching
c Had watched
d Is watched
3. Budi…….. a letter while he was listening to the radio
a Is writing
b Had writing
c Did writing
4. My mother was ………….. in the kitchen when I slept at my room.
c Is cooking
e Are cooked
5. My Mother …………… movie when someone else
a Is watching e. watched
b Was watching
Definition of Discussion
Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical, historic, and social text.
Generic Structure of Discussion
Statement of issue; stating the issue which is to discussed
List of supporting points; presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue
List of contrastive point; presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point
Recommendation; stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse
Language Feature of Discussion
Introducing category or generic participant
Using thinking verb; feel, hope, believe, etc
Using additive, contrastive, and causal connection; similarly, on the hand, however, etc
Using modalities; must, should, could, may, etc
Using adverbial of manner; deliberately, hopefully, etc
Discussion Text Sample on Distance Learning
The advantages and Disadvantages of Distance LearningA few years ago, distance learning was seen as an inferior way but nowadays even famous and established traditional colleges and universities are providing distance learning courses and it is generally considered a way to improve one's life.However, people still argue whether distance learning give more advantage or disadvantage. Some of them who see the benefit of distance learning will say that distance learning needs no commuting. Of course it saves money and time that students would take. Furthermore, distance learning can be done at any student’s convenience. Mostly of the classes of distance learning are asynchronous. It means that students do not have to attend a lecture at a fixed particular time and place. Students can review the assignments and do their homework during off-hours or from home. Additionally, distance learning gives more accessibility. No one can deny it. People with limited mobility may encounter the problem when they take traditional class. With the online class system, the problem is absent.Despite the many advantages, the other people will see that distance learning is costly and needs complex technology. To attend online learning, student must have a computer with possibly access to the internet. Admitted or not, such technology devices are not always available for common students. Another disadvantage of distance learning is that it does not provide immediate feedback. Unlikely traditional classroom, students have to wait for the feedback and comment until the instructor has review the works and sent response to them. Most of the time students will study alone. Distance learners may feel isolated or miss that social physical interaction that comes with attending a traditional classroomRegarding the individual’s learning style, some students are able to learn when there is a live interaction between them and the available of accompanying teacher while others don’t really need it. So before deciding a choice of attending distance learning or not, each student needs to do a fair analysis regarding the kind of person he/she is
1. “The hotel is suffering a great loss.”
“Yes, only ten percent of their rooms………..”
a being occupied
c is occupied
d are occupied
e they are occupied
2. “Why does the baby next-door keep crying?”
“As usual, it……….. by the baby sitter.”
a Is neglecting
b Is neglected
d Is to be neglected
e Is to neglect
3. “Which paintings will be tomorrow?”
“We don’t know yet; they……………. by a team
a are still being selected
b are still selecting
c still be selected
d still selected
e still selected
4. Our mail ………..by the postman
a Is deliver
b Had deliver
c Is delivered
e Have been deliver
5. The cake ………… by the children
a Has been eaten c. did eaten e. eat
b Has eaten d. eaten
Definition of Procedure
Procedure is a text that show a process in order. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series
Generic Structure of Procedure
1. Goal: showing the purpose
2. Material: Telling the needed materials
3. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose
Language Feature of Procedure
• Using temporal conjunction
• Using action verb
• Using imperative sentence
• Using Simple Present Tense
Writing For Business writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. Well, you don't have to.
Here's a simple checklist to follow. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google, but it will help.
Firstly, take the topic of benefits, not features. Your customers don't care about you. They want to know "What's in it for me?"
Secondly, write your benefit like you talk it. Use regular words. Read aloud what you've written. How does it sound?
Thirdly, lose the weak words. Don't describe how your company may, might or should help customers but talk about how your company will.
Fourthly, Use a nice rhythm. Some sentences are long and some are short. Mix them up and keep things interesting.
Fifthly,re-read what you've done before publishing. Edit it necesarily. It's so easy to make mistakes which you don't notice the first time through.
1. Andi always……….. go to scholl
2. Carol often……….. to the theater.
3. Mr. Glendoh sometimes …………. Late
a Get up
b Got up
c Gots up
d Geted up
e Gets up
4. “What is the freezing point of water?”
“Water……. At 32. Fahrenheit.
d Is Freezing
e Did Freezes
5. The sun ……… in the east
c Have rise
d Had rise
NEWS ITEM TEXT
Definition of News Item
News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. The events are considered newsworthy or important.
Generic Structure of News Item
1. Main event
2. Elaboration (background, participant, time, place)
3. Resource of information
Language Feature of News Item
1. Focusing on circumstances
2. Using material process
Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV, a news report said.
“This is not to debate them but to protect them. Women are the first ones to get exploited by their partners (whom are infected by HIV-positive)” Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday Star Newspaper. “But this just a suggestion, it’s up to them”.
Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the International Aids Memorial day, which was celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia, in bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim. In the past the event was held behind closed door.
Last year, 745 Malaysian women were identified as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS, he said in the report. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV, less then 10 percent are woman, but the number is steadily rising.
Malaysian Aids Council president, Adeebah Kamarulzaman, was quoted as saying besides sex workers, many women who contract HIV are housewives, were infected unknowingly by their husbands. “It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution, even though they know they have HIV” she said.
Generic Structure AnalysisNews worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV.
Background event 1: International Memorial Day was held openly in Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV victims.
Background event 2: The number of Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising.
Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV
1. “I’m having trouble with my computer again. “I’ve done everything I can but it doesn’t work properly.”
“Why don’t you have Dono …………it?”
a to fix
c he fixed
2. “Do I have to go to the post office to get my package?’
“No, you can ……………”
a have delivered it
b deliver it
c have it to be delivered
d have to deliver it
e have it delivered
3. “Why does the secretary have to work overtime?”
“Her boss……….. the letter.”
a Has retyped
b Has been retyping
c Has her retype
d Has to retype
e Wants to retype
4. “I fixed the light in the bathroom yesterday, but it went out again today”
“Why don’t you have an electrician………….it
c To check
5. “After I finished my article, I had it edited”
This means that…………..
a I had edited my article
b My article would be edited
c Somebody edited my article
d I was asked to edit my article
e I had to edit my article myself