Subjunctives are used after if/if only (kalau saja), as if/as though (seolah-olah) and after wish (berharap)
Past subjunctive has the same form as the simple past in all verbs , except to be, of which the past subjunctive is were for all persons.
- if only I had much money ( I don’t have much money)
- I wish I were rich ( I am not rich)
Past perfect subjunctives are used when the supposition refers to the past.
- if only I had accepted my wife’s request (I didn’t accept my wife’s request)
- many people wish tsunami hadn’t stricken the beach area ( tsunami struck the beach area)
Past subjunctives can be used for indicating or expressing:
1. Improbability or unreality in the present
- if only I had wings (unreal)
2. Unreal situation in the present
- I wish I knew ( it implies that “I don’t know”)
3. A kind of regret in the present
- I wish I could go to Aceh as volunteer (I am sorry I can’t go)
Past perfect subjunctives have the same functions as past subjunctives, but they refer to the past:
- if only you had called me last night (you didn’t call me last night)
- I wish you had given me a gift (you didn’t give me a gift)
Usually the idea following as if/as though is untrue
Verb form after as if/as though
- She talked to him as if he were a child (he isn’t a child)
- When she came in from the rain storm, she looked as if she had taken a shower with her clothes on (she didn’t take a shower with her clothes on)
- He acted as though he had never met her (he has met her)
- She spoke as if she wouldn’t be here ( she will be here)
Write down what the following sentences imply
Example: I wish I had much money = I’m sorry I don’t have much money
1. The President wishes all Indonesian people donated some money to the tsunami victims
2. Many people wish earthquake and tsunami had not stricken the beach areas
3. The man wishes He could find his lost child
4. My grandmother wishes many tsunami victim children weren’t illegally adopted
5. If only I had gone to Bali for my vacation last year
6. If only you had told me about the disaster earlier.
7. If only the family hadn’t swum in the beach
8. My mother wished I had taken her advice
9. If only you could come to the charity concert
10. The sun isn’t shining. I wish the sun_________________________________right now
Complete each sentence with as if/as though!
1. (his animals aren’t people)
I know a farmer who talks to his animals as if his animals were people)
2. (She speaks English)
She speaks English____________________________________________________
3. (You didn’t see a ghost)
What’s the matter? You look_____________________________________________
4. A giant buldozzer didn’t drive down main street
After the tornado, the town looked_________________________________________
5. (I don’t have wings and can’t fly)
I was so happy that I felt_____________________________________________
Answer the questions:
1. Where do you wish you were right now? What do you wish you were doing?
2. Are you pleased with the weather today, or do you wish it were different?
3. What do you wish about the place you were living?
4. Look around this room, what do you wish were different?
is there anything in your past life that you would change? What do you wish you had or hadn’t done?