The betel plant is a slender, aromatic creeper, rooting at the nodes. The branches of the plant are swollen at the nodes. The plant has alternate, heart-shaped, smooth, shining and long stalked leaves, with pointed apex. It has five to seven ribs arising from the base; minute flowers and one-seeded spherical small berries.
Betel is a native of central and eastern Malaysia. It spreads at a very early date throughout tropical Asia and later to Madagascar and East Africa. In India, it is widely cultivated in Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Orissa, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. The use of betel leaf can be traced as far back as two thousand years. It is described in the most ancient historic book of Sri Lanka, Mahavasma, written in Pali. Offering betel morsel (pan-supari) to guests in Indian subcontinent is a common courtesy.
Recent studies have shown that betel leaves contain tannins, sugar and diastase, and an essential oil. The essential oil is a light yellow liquid of aromatic odor and sharp burning in taste. Betel is also has powerful antiseptic properties since it contains chavicol. The alkaloid arakene in it, has properties resembling cocaine in some respects.
1. Why does betel have powerful antiseptic properties?
A. It contains chavicol.
B. It has alkaloid arakene.
C. It produces essential oil.
D. It spreads aromatic odor.
2. What is the main idea of paragraph 2?
A. Offering betel morsel is a common courtesy.
B. People have used betel since hundreds of years.
C. Betel has spread very widely for thousand years.
D. Betel is described in the most ancient historic book.
3. What can we infer from the text?
A. Betel has alkaloid arakene for antiseptic.
B. Betel is valued for its medical properties.
C. Betel mostly has single rib arising from the base.
D. Betel grows naturally in Madagascar and East Africa.
4. “In India, it is widely cultivated in Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh,…” (paragraph 2)
The underlined word has similar meaning to …
How to Make Rag Dolls
• Scraps of cloth
• Fiber stuffing
1. Draw the outline for your doll on a cloth.
2. Place a second layer of fabric underneath with the right sides of the fabric together. Cut out both on the outermost line.
3. Pin the fabric and stitch around the outline, leaving an opening for the stuffing.
4. Relieve the seams around curves and corners by cutting triangular notches in the seam allowance.
5. Turn the doll right side out, working the fabric through the opening.
6. Stuff the doll with any fiber stuffing you choose.
7. Turn the edges of the opening under, towards the inside, and stitch it closed by hand or machine.
8. If desired, stitch across the legs and arms to form joints.
9. Decorate the doll. Embroider a face or sew on buttons for the eyes and nose. Hair can be made from yarn; braid it for special effect if the hair is long.
10. Sew doll clothes for it (another great use of found, leftover, or recycled materials), or make no-sew doll clothes.
5. What materials should we use to have the eyes and nose?
6. What should we do after stitch across the legs and arms to form joints?
A. Turning the edges.
B. Sewing doll clothes.
C. Decorating the doll.
D. Embroidering a face.
7. “Decorate the doll. Embroider a face …”
The underlined word means …